YK-11 is a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) that functions as a gene-specific agonist of the androgen receptor (AR) in MDA-MB 453 cells. The way YK-11 operates is unique, affecting various anabolic pathways. It has been found to display more significant anabolic activity in vitro in C2C12 myoblasts than dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
The way YK-11 promotes muscle growth and key myogenic regulatory factors in skeletal muscle tissue is of particular interest. Factors such as myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) and myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) are activated to a much greater extent than by DHT. This helps explain why YK-11 exerts its selective modulation of the AR. Unlike testosterone and most other agents mediated by androgen receptors that promote anabolic growth, YK-11 can be taken orally, meaning injections are not necessary for proper absorption. It’s important to note that YK-11 is currently intended for laboratory research use only, and its side effects are not yet fully understood.
What differentiates YK-11 from other SARMs is a key aspect of its anabolic activity that is modulated via the expression of follistatin. This was uncovered by measuring the difference in effects when co-administering anti-follistatin antibodies with YK11. Follistatin has been demonstrated to boost insulin-stimulated glucose and amino acid uptake into skeletal muscle cells, which in turn enhances insulin sensitivity and increases skeletal muscle mass. Follistatin proteins also serve the crucial function of blocking inhibitory ligands from binding to Transforming Growth Factor-ß.
Perhaps one of the most exciting aspects of follistatin’s action is its binding and neutralization of catabolic proteins like Activin A, Activin B, and Myostatin. A significant challenge is that follistatin proteins themselves are quickly broken down through proteolysis and have limited bioavailability and half-life, even with direct injection into wasting muscles. YK-11, however, stimulates the body to produce more follistatin proteins both systemically and locally. This may circumvent the direct follistatin administration’s limitations and contribute to muscle growth.
In summary, YK-11 stands out in the world of SARMs, demonstrating unique anabolic effects. Its ability to selectively modulate the AR and enhance follistatin expression holds promising potential. Yet, comprehensive understanding and application of YK-11 remain in the realm of research, and further studies are needed to fully grasp its potential benefits and risks, especially concerning human use.
CAS Number: 1370003-76-1
Molar Mass: 430.541 g/mol
Class: Myostatin Inhibitor, Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator
Storage: Store in a cool dry place away from direct sunlight to maximize shelf life.
This preparation is for laboratory research purposes only and is not approved by the FDA for human consumption. YK-11 IS NOT A DIETARY OR SPORTS SUPPLEMENT.
Similar to other Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs), lab-tested YK11 demonstrates a dose-dependent reduction in natural testosterone levels in males.
According to available data, YK11 functions as a myostatin inhibitor by suppressing myostatin through modulation of the follistatin pathway.
Research studies propose that YK11 induces the expression of osteoblast-specific differentiation markers, including osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin. This suggests a potential role in facilitating the production of bone tissue and, consequently, contributing to enhanced bone growth.
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YK11 is an investigational compound still awaiting FDA approval and is not a dietary supplement. At Sports Technology Labs we are chemical suppliers, not medical doctors, and our expertise is sourcing and quality control. Sports Technology Labs does not encourage or condone consumer use of SARMs products, they are for research purposes only.
SARMs should only be used under the supervision and direction of a medical doctor or designated research authority. We strongly discourage the use of SARMs for performance enhancement in sports and bodybuilding, and warn against “bro science” and peer consensus when making decisions about health.
1. Kanno Y, Hikosaka R, Zhang SY, Inoue Y, Nakahama T, Kato K, Yamaguchi A, Tominaga N, Kohra S, Arizono K, Inouye Y (2011). “(17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene)bis(oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11) is a partial agonist of the androgen receptor”. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 34 (3): 318–23. PMID 21372378 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21372378/
2. Kanno Y, Ota R, Someya K, Kusakabe T, Kato K, Inouye Y (2013). “Selective androgen receptor modulator, YK11, regulates myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by follistatin expression”. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 36 (9): 1460–5. PMID 23995658.
3. Han X, Moller LLV, et al. Mechanisms involved in follistatin-induced hypertrophy and increased insulin action in skeletal muscle. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019 Aug 11.
4. Castonguay R, Lachey J, Wallner S, et al. Follistatin-288-Fc Fusion Protein Promotes Localized Growth of Skeletal Muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019 Mar;368(3):435-445. doi: 10.1124/jpet.118.252304. Epub 2018 Dec 18.