YK11 is a synthetic SARM that is a gene-selective partial agonist of the androgen receptors (AR) . It was first studied in Japan in 2011 by researcher Yuichiro Kanno . YK-11 accelerates the translocation of the AR into the nuclear compartment where its amino-terminal domain (NTD) functions as a constitutive activator of AR target genes . It does not however induce amino/carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction that is required for full transactivation of the androgen receptors .
YK-11 promoted a cascade of key myogenic regulatory factors in skeletal muscles tissue such as myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) and myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), to a significantly greater extent than DHT . This can in part explain why YK-11 exerts its selective modulation of the AR .
YK-11 has a component of its anabolic activity that is modulated via the expression of follistatin . Scientists discovered this by co-administering anti-follistatin antibodies in test subjects with YK-11 to measure the difference in effects .
Follistatin has been shown to promote insulin-stimulated glucose and amino acid uptake into skeletal muscle cells, improving insulin sensitivity directly and increasing skeletal muscle mass .
Follistatin proteins also block inhibitory ligands from binding to Transforming Growth Factor-ß . Follistatin binds and neutralizes catabolic proteins Activin A, Activin B, and Myostatin . Follistatin proteins themselves undergo rapid proteolysis and have limited bioavailability and half-life even when injected directly into a wasting muscle [2,4].
YK-11, however, stimulates the body to produce more follistatin proteins systemically and locally [2,4]. Researchers are studying these effects to circumvent this shortfall seen by direct follistatin [2,4].
YK 11 Research Study Continued
In animal studies by Yatsu and colleagues, it was demonstrated that the administration of YK 11 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) resulted in accelerated cell proliferation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cells .
Moreover, YK 11 led to an increase in osteoblast-specific differentiation markers, including osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin, when compared to untreated cells. Notably, these effects were found to be attenuated by AR antagonists. It is to note that this study did not include any analysis on muscle cells or bone tissue itself . Read up on MK 677 benefits for more information about compounds that promote muscle and bone growth.
To investigate the mechanisms underlying the observed effects of YK 11, the authors assessed the rapid non-genomic signaling by androgen receptors. It was found that with YK 11 and DHT there was an increase in the phosphorylated Akt protein level, indicating that YK 11 activates Akt-signaling via non-genomic signaling of AR .
Given that Akt-signaling is known to be a critical regulator of androgen-mediated osteoblast differentiation, it can be concluded that YK 11 possesses osteogenic activity in addition to its androgenic properties as seen in the mice research subjects .
What Benefits of YK11 Are Researchers Studying?
3. Androgenic effects observed in the scalp and prostate.
4. Protein Kinase
AT THIS TIME, YK-11 IS ONLY APPROVED FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH AND IS NOT SOLD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.
YK-11 is one of many investigational compounds still awaiting FDA approval and are not dietary supplements. At Sports Technology Labs we are chemical suppliers, not medical doctors, and our expertise is sourcing and quality control.
Sports Technology Labs does not encourage or condone consumer use of SARMs products, they are for research purposes only. Anecdotal reports and guides may not match those used in carefully designed medical research protocols and may pose a serious risk of adverse effects in users.
Sports Technology Labs and Laboratory Research Use
YK 11 is one of many research chemicals Sports Technology Labs offers for qualified researcher’s scientific studies. The research community is well versed in the companies great product line and continued dedication to producing the highest quality and purity of most SARMs available in the industry.
They offer the best competitive prices on the market today and their YK 11 is for sale online now. What’s even better is they usually process orders within one working business day, and in rare cases , two working business days, so you will receive your products for your institution’s lab swiftly.
There is no need to wait, buy YK 11 at the best place to buy these products, Sports Technology Labs.
- Kanno Y, Hikosaka R, Zhang SY, Inoue Y, Nakahama T, Kato K, Yamaguchi A, Tominaga N, Kohra S, Arizono K, Inouye Y (2011). “(17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene)bis(oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11) is a partial agonist of the androgen receptor”. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 34 (3): 318–23. PMID 21372378
- Kanno Y, Ota R, Someya K, Kusakabe T, Kato K, Inouye Y (2013). “Selective androgen receptor modulator, YK11, regulates myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by follistatin expression”. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 36 (9): 1460–5. PMID 23995658.
- Han X, Moller LLV, et al. Mechanisms involved in follistatin-induced hypertrophy and increased insulin action in skeletal muscle. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019 Aug 11. doi: 10.1002/jcsm.12474.
- Castonguay R, Lachey J, Wallner S, et al. Follistatin-288-Fc Fusion Protein Promotes Localized Growth of Skeletal Muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019 Mar;368(3):435-445. doi: 10.1124/jpet.118.252304. Epub 2018 Dec 18.
- Yatsu, T., Kusakabe, T., Kato, K., Inouye, Y., Nemoto, K., & Kanno, Y. (2018). Selective androgen receptor modulator, yk11, up-regulates osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation in mc3t3-e1 cells. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 41(3), 394-398